The Humboldt Penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) distributes along the coast of the SE Pacific Ocean, where it breeds at nearly 50 locations (mostly coastal islands) along Perú and Chile. The global population roughly equates 12,000 breeding pairs. Historically, this species has declined since the mid-19th century due to severe habitat destruction derived from guano harvest. Today, despite protection at most colonies, entanglement in fishing nets represents one the main threats to this species.
For more information on Humboldt penguin natural history visit the Global Penguin Society at https://www.globalpenguinsociety.org/portfolio-species-16.html
For more information on Humboldt penguin conservation status visit the IUCN Red List page at